|Spoken in:||Baranxtu, Cikoutimi, Otea, and other countries|
|Region:||International Democratic Union|
|Genetic classification:|| Meleiyan|
|Official language in:||Baranxtu, Cikoutimi, Otea, Jonquiere-Tadoussac|
|Regulated by:||Board of the Language Baranxeï in the Most Serene Republic|
Baranxeï is spoken by a vast number of people in many countries, most of which are currently not represented in NationStates. It is not related to any of the other languages of NationStates, but is the member of the most prominent Sumyaian languages on its home continent Ašmeina (Baranxeï: Ašmina), second in its number of speakers only to Manyala- the Manyaian language.
- 1 History
- 2 Status
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Morphology
- 4.1 Verbs
- 4.2 Nouns
- 4.3 Adjectives
- 4.4 Pronouns
- 5 Syntax
- 6 Dialects
- 7 Vocabulary
From Sumyaian till Ilatemaian
Baranxeï belongs to the Sumyaian (Bar. Sumjaï) languages; the Sumyaians were a tribe living in the vast plains east of the Ilateme Lake. At the time they lived, a script had yet to be developed, and all we know about them stems from archeological research. The Sumyaians were named for the cave Sumi in what is today the outer edge of the country Atamia.
At around 5,000 BCE, the tribe split into three groups. One group travelled south and finally settled along the southern coast of the continent Ašmeina; they were the early Sijaians and their language became Sijai (Bar. Sižaï). A second group went to the even larger plains in the far east, where they became the nomadic tribes which spoke the ancestor of the Yayaian languages (Bar. Jajamismaï). The third one stayed in their original region. The dialect of Sumyaian they spoke first developed into Proto-Meleiyan (Bar. Mēlējiaï). The language is named after the cultures which are the descendants of this first group, which are classified together as Meleiyan cultures, named in turn after the central goddess in their religion, Meleiya (Bar. Mēlēa).
However, in about 1,500 BCE, they started to expand their territory. One relatively large groups seems to have migrated in relatively short time up the Atami River, through the Atamia Mountains to the plains north of them called the Akian Plains. Their dialect was the ancestor of all languages in the Egisian Group (Bar. Eγēsjaï), named after the island in the Atami River where the most conservative dialect, Egisiem (Bar. Eγēsjemi), is spoken. The southern group moved westwards and settled around the fertile banks of the immensely vast Ilateme Lake. Their dialect was the ancestor of the Syko-Roekian group (Bar. Ši-Rušaï) is named after the Manyala words for 'lake' and 'river', as this area is indeed dominated by the gargantuan Ilateme Lake and hundreds of small tributary rivers.
As the geographical distance between the tribes of the Syko-Roekian group increased, they developed their own, different cultures and languages. About in 600 BCE, those calling themselves Ilatemaians (who had build a kingdom that covered all the shore of the lake) conquered the other tribes, and expanded their empire to the Ake River in the west and the Atari River in the east, building the largest empire in their day, comparable in size to the Roman Empire at its height. At this time, a script had already been in use, which is why we know today what the language of the empire sounded like - the Old Ilatemaian language (Bar. Iratemjaï) gives us the oldest surviving records of a direct ancestor of Baranxeï.
Within this empire, many languages co-existed. But the once unified Ilatemaian language had changed, of course, and had two descendants - Eastern Ilatemaian and Western Ilatemaian.
Language of the Marches
During this peak of its reign, the Ilatemaian Empire started to colonize the territories around, largely for protection against other, rival kingdoms - for example the Yayaian Nomad States in the east, Sija in the south, Atamia in the north and the Talitrian Empire in the west.
In the west, five marches were set up between the Ake River and the Habanu River (now Baranxi River). These five territories were called Baranxtu, Asuanitu, Bērēa, Mañatu and Amarin. Most of the colonists for these Western Marches were drawn from the West Ilatemaian regions of Panhura, especially from the area around the now lost city of Baranhide, so that most inhabitants of the marches spoke the Panhuran dialect.
Unfortunately, almost no written sources of this dialect survives, safe for a few inscriptions on personal items.
Today, there is scientific agreement in the 1st century CE, a new language had developped out of the Panhuran dialects - or more precisely, two languages. A northern variant nowadays simply caleld 'Northern March', spoken in Baranxtu, Asuanitu and Bērēa as well as 'Southern March' spoken in Mañatu and Amarin. As all these marches were still under Ilatemaian reign, the Ancient Ilatemaian language remained official, and any regional languages were oppressed, so there is as few written material of these 'March languages' as of the Panhuran dialects.
It was not until the Western Marches gained their independence in the 3rd century that the local language started to be written down in lengthier texts. However, the script of that time is suŋested not to be a close representation of the actual phonology of the time, as it was a syllabary of about 150 characters which did not match the suŋested inventory of some possible 600-800 syllables of the language.
By the time a new script that fitted the language was introduced, Northern March had developed into Old Baranxeï, Old Asuaneï and Old Bērēaï, whereas Southern March had become Old Mañatu in the southernmost part and Old Amarini in the northern parts.
In 728 CE, queen Amina Sohateratu Megkura-Oratirh introduced the first alphabet which fitted all sounds of the language. It was modeled after the alphabet which was used for the closely related Mányala kónie (Manyaian language), which in turn was largely inspired by alphabets used by the neighboring Talitrian tribes.
The language recorded from this time - whose phonology, morphology and syntax is actually known - received the name of Old Baranxeï.
Of course, the language changed - and in the 13th century, it underwent such dramatic changes that from that time on, it is called Middle Baranxeï. The language that was spoken during this first 500 years of official Baranxeï existence is further divided into Early, Classical, Post-Classical and Late Old Baranxeï.
At the beginning of the 13th century, Baranxeï made distinction between aspirated and unaspirated, voiced and unvoiced, palatalized and unpalatalized consonants. In only some 70 years, this distinction vanished, and only voiced and unvoiced consonants were left. The Old Baranxeï inventory of affricates even vanished entirely. The reason for this is still heavily disputed, but most linguist agree today that the Atamian occupation of first Asuanei and later Baranxtu, leading to the flight of many Asuaneians to Baranxtu, inflicted this heavy reduction of the consonantal inventory on the language, as the two languages Old Baranxeï and Old Asuaneï were mixed, perhaps even creating a creole (the last part being the most heavily disputed of this theory).
The case system was also simplified, dropping most positional cases in favor of simple prepositions and postpositions.
However, the drastic change also added to Baranxeï's phonological inventory. Previously only spotting an 'r' (X-SAMPA: r), it now also included a variant of 'l' (X-SAMPA: K).
As the country of Baranxtu's rise began, so did the rise of the repuation of the language. More and more texts were written in Middle Baranxeï, including some of the most important philosophical works of the time. However, Mányala ws the more prestigious language, as the kingdom Mányai was now covering an area almost as large as the now-gone Ilatemaian Empire, wheres Baranxtu was still relatively small.
The Traditional Baranxtuans still speak a version of this language, as they emigrated just shortly before a major sound shift occured in the original area where Baranxeï was spoken. At the end of the 17th century, the language had changed again enough to be given a new name.
It were already the contemporary writers who wrote about 'Modern Baranxeï' in the early 1700s.
Beginning from the core of the Baranxeï-speaking regions, a sound shift took place in almost all areas where the language was spoken. It saw the emergence of more fricatives, the loosening of the formerly strict distinction between c/x/x [c, x, X], the roughing of h before consonants (to [x]) and its loss in prevocalic positions, the written blurring of <ŋ, ng, gk> and the like.
Middle Baranxeï, on the other hand, is only officially recognized in the province of Abasina (Middle Baranxeï: Aipašina).
In this province of the republic, it has about 250,000 speakers who use it as their primary means of communication in both private and public. Another 250,000 learned it as their mother tongue (or one of their mother tongues), but only use it when talking to a monoglot.
Middle Baranxeï is also spoken in remote areas where emigrants from Baranxtu went to pursue a usually more conservative, traditional live (quite similar to that of Traditional Baranxtuans). Their number is somewhere between two or three million speakers, but their culture is not recognized anywhere.
The total number of speakers of Middle Baranxeï is therefore somwhere between 2.5 and 3.5 million.
Standard Baranxeï formally recognizes nine monophthongs; however, most exist as various allophones and many are in fact diphthongs. Apart from these, there is also a number of actual diphthongs written es digraphs.
Standard Baranxeï Alphabet
The most common writing system virtually used by Baranxtimans is the Standard Baranxeï Alphabet. It is a version of the Unified Meleiyaian Alphabet, which is nowadays used by almost all languages of the Meleiyaian cultures to which Baranxtu belongs.
It is one of the few versions of this alphabet that uses almost no digraphs.
The Ararabagaþa (the divine script) is a much less commonly used alphabet used for writing Baranxeï. It evolved independently from the Standard Baranxeï Alphabet and was the standard up until the 16th century, when it started to be slowly replaced by the SBA.
Outside of its continued use as the standard script for religious texts, the Ararabagaþa is today often used for calligraphic purposes. It is still thought in schools, but there recently have been attempts to remove it from the official curriculum.
As the Baranxeï alphabet bears no resemblence to any language of Earth, a romanisation is used to display examples of Baranxeï.
It is not a true romanisation, however, drawing heavily from letters of the Greek alphabet. For more details, see Romanisation of Baranxeï.
Each verb can take six infinitive forms, of which one (present active infinitive) is the citation form.
|English||Present Active||Present Passive||Future Active||Future Passive||Past Active||Past Passive|
|to go, to walk||serena||serenain||serenēša||sereništa||serenauma||serenīnna|
|to speak, to talk||hēva||hēvain||hēvēša||hēvišta||hēvauma||hēvīnna|
These infinitives are all used fairly common, especially in a construction akin to the Latin accusativus cum infinitivo.
- I see him walking down the street. - Anertim ānin pritan serena.
- I saw him walking down the street. - Anertani ānin pritan serenauma.
- I see him being given a book. - Anertim ānin begin jaŋain.
- I saw him being given a book. - Anertani ānin begin jaŋīnna.
There are a total of four sets of personal endings, one for Present/Future Active, one for Present/Future Passive, one for Past Active and one for Past Passive.
The personal endings for the present tense and future tense are identical.
However, in the future tense verbs take an additional infix before the personal ending, -ar-.
The past tense has an extra set of personal endings. If they are simply added to the verb stem, they form what can be compared to the English simple past.
However, although only found in formal language anymore, they are traditionally two past tenses - simple past with the infix -ān- and pluperfect with the infix -āþ-.
There are only two irregular verbs in Baranxeï - haþa (to be) and erna (to have).
Haþa - To Be
Erna - To Have
Baranxeï has four gender classes for nouns, masculine, feminine, neuter and mixed gender. The latter is almost exlusively used in the plural forms, although formally they may be used in the singular.
- Masculine nouns end in –i, –y, –u or a consonant.
- Feminine nouns end in –a, –e, –ē or a consonant.
- Neutral nouns end in –o, –u, –y or a consonant.
- Mixed gender nouns are variations of masculine or feminine nouns. Their vowel is –ī.
There are, however, a few exceptions. Some nouns end in vowels that don't correspond ot their natural gender; they are declined according to their grammatical gender; adjectives referring to these, however, go with their natural gender (e.g. pa - father, pa mauni - a good father).
The nominative case marks the subject of a verb. It is also the citation form of a noun as it is marked by a null morpheme.
- The book is on the table. - Begi can guf han.
- I see him. - Hãma sāmin anertim.
The genitive case shows a relationship that may be thought of as one thing belonging to, being created from, or otherwise deriving from some other thing. It usually directly follows the noun it refers to.
- He takes my book. - Begin hãmatu γamelin.
- Father's house is green. - Niqab patu verēu han.
The dative case marks the indirect object of a verb. In Baranxeï, it also marks the agent in a passive sentence.
- He gives me a book. - Sāmi begin hãmir juŋin.
- I was given a book by her. - Hãma begin sāmar juŋna.
The accusative case marks the direct object of a verb.
- I give her a book. - Hãmi begin sāmar juŋim.
- I walk down the street. - Hãmi pritan serenam.
Pre- and Postpositional Case
The pre- and postpositional case is needed if a noun is part of a pre-/postpositional phrase.
- I walk into the house. - Hãmi xõ niqabuf serenim.
- I am inside the house. - Hãmi niqabuf xõ hã.
Nouns ending on a vowel are declined by removing the final vowel and adding the endings. For nouns ending on a consonant, a final fricative is usually changed into its respective plosive. Then, the endings is added.
Baranxeï formally has four pronouns which are declined like normal nouns. Thus, there are no special words for "my/your/his/her/its", instead the genitive form of the pronoun is used.
It should also be noted that the nominative form of a pronoun is usually absent and only used for emphasis.
|Case||I||You||He/She/It (present)||He/She/It (absent)|
|Case||We||You||They (present)||They (absent)|
Baranxeï has only one relative pronoun, haïnā. It agrees in number and gender with the antedecent, but may differ in case.
There are a number of demonstrative pronouns which may be used to introduce a relative clause, but by far the most common is þinā. It agrees in number, gender and case with the antecedent.
This makes the formation of relative clauses somewhat complicated, but it has the advantage of being very precise in the information that is given. If the relative clause extends to a second part where the role of the antecedent changes, the relative pronoun must be repeated.
- Hē han þinu, haïnun γauzatni!
- this is that, which I-said!
- That's what I said!
- Niqab þinu, haïnuf xõ meidrim, ēgu han.
- house that, which in I-live, red is.
- The house I live in is red.
- vami īpan þinan, haïnan juŋni ā haïna raña han, araxnis!
- uncle present that, which I-gave and which bad is, he-loved!
- (My) uncle loved the present I gave him, and which is (so) bad!
Preposititons and Postpositions
Baranxeï has a number of both prepositions and postpositions; actually, one morpheme may act as both, but with a change of meaning. The former usually denotes movement or a change of position or state (from the point of view of the agent), whereas the latter usually denotes a temporarily stable position or state. Others describe prepositions as describing an act, whereas postpositions describe the result.
The following table gives an overview of the pre- and postpositions of Baranxeï.
|Morpheme||Basic Meaning||Postposition (Example)||English||Preposition (Example)||English|
|aš|| Postpos.: behind sth, following sb
Prepos.: behind, into the back of sth
|baf aš serenis.||He walks behind his father.||aš niqabuf serenis.||He goes behind the house.|
|can|| Postpos.: over, above, on top of sth
Prepos.: onto, over, above sth
|haðēnapu niqabuf can han.||The bird is on top of the house.||can niqabuf haðēŋes.||It flies onto the house.|
|ðin|| Postpos.: resulting in, causing
Prepos.: by, through1
|ðiskarif ðin||...causing his death...||ðin ðiskarif||...by his death...|
|mī|| Postpos.: before sth; ~ years ago
Prepos.: at the time of sth, back when1
|aþrābileruf mī||two hundred (years) ago||mī Melumnaf||at the time of Melumna|
|niaš|| Postpos.: in front of; followed by
Prepos.: in front of sth
|ostīf niaš serenis.|| He walks in front of his child.
He is followed by his child.
|niaš niqabuf serenis.||He goes in front of the house.|
|rēn|| Postpos.: with
Prepos.: followed by, preceding
|ostīf rēn xoxaštis.||He enters with his child.||rēn ostīf xoxaštis.||He enters, followed by his child.|
|sen|| Postpos.: outside of, out of
Prepos.: outside, out
|niqabuf sen ha.||He is outside of the house.||sen niqabuf serenis.||He walks out of the house.|
|xõ|| Postpos.: in(side) sth
Prepos.: into sth
|niqabuf xõ han.||He is inside the house.||xõ niqabuf serenis.||He walks inside the house.|
- 1: Can also stand with a verbal phrase.
Republic of Baranxtu
The dialects of Baranxeï spoken in the republic are all still relatively homogenous. The dialect of the first settlers survives today as the Middle Baranxeï spoken in the province of Abasina by the so-called Traditional Baranxtuans.
The dialects of modern Baranxeï, however, are not the direct descendants of any of the kingdom's dialects. The reason for this is that most immigrants from the kingdom arrived in the northern province Bari Nazer and usually stayed there, only their children moving to the southern provinces. Until the early 1800s, the province of Bari Nazer (including the capital) had developed a specific dialect which was incidentally very close to what became Standard Modern Baranxeï in 1906. New immigrants from various parts of the Baranxeï speaking world did add their own elements to the language, but largely adapted to what was considered standard in the republic.
Other areas under Baranxtuan control were not heavily populated until the second half of the 19th century. Then, mostly people from the rural area of Bari Nazer started to move to the industrial centers which developed in Halaora and Leumena as well as the coastal area of Dorista. The dialects of the earlier Baranxtuan settlers were quickly eradicated by the sheer mass of people from the north.
In the republic, dialects do not greatly differ in vocabulary, but mostly in pronunciation. Generally speaking, it is a city-country disparity, with rural dialects all over Baranxtu being closer to each other than to the neighboring urban dialects.
The diversity in sociolects is not as large.
The most common difference between the rural and urban dialects is that in rural areas, people tend to merge all alveolar sounds ( /t d s z r l n/) into one alveolar retroflex.
|zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine||hoïn, mā, aþrā, eijkā. šā, aijrā, hazā, žvā, hājā, leiðā|
|ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety||ēmanā, ēþranā, ēkanā. ēšanā, ēranā, ēzanā, ēžvanā, ējanā, ēleiðanā|
|eleven, twelve, thirteen, forteen||ēmanā-mā, ēman-aþrā, ēman-eijkā, ēmanā-šā|
|one hundred, two hundred, one thousand, two thousand||mābilerā, aþrābilerā, māvarā, aþrāvarā|
|million, billion, trillion||makonā, takonā, kakonā|
|half, third, quarter, fifth||aþrim, eijkim, šim, aijrim|
|one and a half, one and a third, one and two thirds||mā xar aþrim, mā xar eijkim, mā xar aþrā eijkim|
Time and Date
|What time is it?||Ašinun hãmir/hãmar γauzata ajiriþ/ajiraþ?|
|It is five thirty AM/PM.||Ašinu aijrā/ēmanā-žvā ā ēkanā han.|
|day - night||aðu (f) - tuma|
|day - week - month - year||aðu (n) - žvaðu - miamu - asaγu|
|Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday||lañaðu, sindeiγaðu, ēgaðu, miñaðu, veraðu, saumaðu, isjaðu|
|January, Feburary, March, April, May, June||Asuanitum, Mañatum, Avaranisatum, Anēžatum, Atamjatum, Šītujam|
|July, August, September, October, November, December||Aneijatum, Lužatum, Baranxitum, Nutum, Imatum, Mēlējatum|
IDU Country Names
|English||Baranxeï Counry Name||Baranxeï Adjective|
The Most Serene Republic of Baranxtu
Furanē An-Maona Baranxtu
|Xtraordinary Gentlemen||Sohukut Asstraordinar||asstraordinaralā|
|International Democratic Union||Murtikainu Anhēigemu Hētatu Sohukututu||mahsalā|
|English||Baranxeï Name||Baranxeï Adjective|
|Languages of Baranxtu|
|Asuaneï | Baranxeï | Baranxtuan Sign Language | English | French | Nidajii|
|Baranxtuan French | Chicoutim | Masenar | Phipul | Qi|