History of Hell Bovines
This article deals with the history of Hell Bovines. For more information about the country itself, check the main article.
According to theories accepted by scientists, the Hell Bovinian race has its origins in the South Pacific. It is believed that the Hell Bovinian race then emigrated north, towards the Greenfields continent, in the search for warmer climates and more abundant pastures. During this period, Hell Bovinian political and social structure was not very developed. Hell Bovines were organized in tribes ruled by chieftains. It is believed that the leaders of the different tribes were often elected through competitions or rites in which displays of bravery or honour were the deciding factors.
The hell bovines then, settled on the west coast of the Greenfields continent, and is during this period that much of the Hell Bovinian culture developed. Favorable climate conditions made the hell bovines develop a sedentary lifestyle and so, ancient cities like Moo Moo Farm or Gomoo Tikal were funded during this period, with a unique architectural style, that, as many experts point out, has many resemblances with those of the Incan and Mayan civilizations.
During this period, the traditional tribal political organization was slowly replaced by kingdoms and city-states, while more efforts were put into arts and religion, creating a very pacifist and religious society. Skirmishes between the different kingdoms and tribes would still occur every now and then, but the frequency of these events would become increasingly low. Is during this period that new ideas and technologies like crop rotation, scripture, astrology, complex architecture, and trade were developed.
It must be pointed out that, although there was no organization at national level during this period, the different rulers of city-states and tribes would still cooperate together if a major danger threatened the hell bovines as a whole. A strong sense of national identity appeared and, although each city-state was independent, they would act together in times of need.
The Colonial Era
Things changed drastically when, in the XVIII century, the Galdagan and Celdonian traders begun exploring the coasts of Hell Bovines. Marcos Gonzales is believed to be the first Aperinian to explore the coasts of what today is the grand duchy. It's these Aperinian explorers who gave the name of "Hell Bovines" to the race of bovinoids, that, before this labeling, referred to themselves as "Mookolishians" ("Sons of the rainforest" in Mootish language).
Both Celdonians and Galdagans desired the territory of Hell Bovines, mainly because it was a very well-resourced area that had a native population that due to its rather primitive technological state could be easily subjugated. Celdonian traders begun establishing trading posts and slaver camps in major coasts and gulfs, while Galdagans dedicated to funding colonial cities and cattle farms in the territory. In the years that followed, both nations begun battling for control of the territory. Galdagans finally got the upper hand with the signing of the “Treaty of Mordesillas“, which recognized the land as a “Galdagan Area of Influence”. With this treaty, the monarchs in Galdago were ready to being a massive campaign of colonization and subjugation of the territory and its local peoples, the Hell Bovines. The sentient bovinoids opposed a fiery resistance to the human colonizers but, in the end, were subjugated, thanks to the Aperinians overwhelming superiority in terms of technology.
The Galdagans then proceeded to fund the city of Santa Trinidad, today known as Granero de Blackhooves (Blackhooves’ Barn, in English) and established it as the capital of the Colony of Hell Bovines. A process of subjugation of the local peoples begun: Many Hell Bovines were enslaved and taken away from their native cities, either to be taken to the new capital of Santa Trinidad, or to cattle farms, were they would be bred to be sold in Aperin markets as a form of beef delicacy. The selling of Hell Bovinian meat became a very profitable market, making many colonial land-owners rich in a matter of months. Lumber industry also grew under the Galdagan rule. The wood produced in Hell Bovines greatly served to alleviate the exhaustion of local Galdagan rainforests and the scarcity of this resource on the mainland.
The few Hell Bovines that weren’t used as cattle were bought and sold as slaves of the colonial landowners, while the native culture faded away and the Mootish language became slowly replaced by Galdagan Spanish.
The Bovine Revolution
By the beginning of the XX century, Hell Bovines was one of the few remaining Aperinian colonies. The territory was one of the last remnants from the age of nationalism, and was raising an important number of critics from its home country and abroad. The effects of pollution became increasingly strong throughout the country, and numerous groups of wild and fugitive Hell Bovines begun to form pro-independence groups. The most important of these was the Bovine Liberation Squad, a paramilitary armed force led by Mooo Blackhooves, a young bovine revolutionary that campaigned to start a hell bovine uprising against foreign rule. Blackhooves created his own ideology, which he called ‘Ecotopia’, by combining environmentalist, socialist and democratic ideals, and inspired on that ideology, he and his followers begun a guerrilla campaign in the south of the country.
At first, the colonial government led by Generalissimo Pedro Ramirez didn’t paid much attention to the uprising, as colonial troops greatly surpassed the guerrilla forces, both in numbers and technology. But as the Empire Aperin War of Western Aggression against the Galdagan government intensified, more and more colonial troops were withdrawn from Hell Bovines to fight on the Galdagan mainland. Blackhooves’ guerrilla forces seized this opportunity and begun attacking cities and cattle farms in the south of the country, gaining popularity and new recruits as they moved north. Using guerrilla tactics and the technology and weapons brought by the colonialists, the Bovine Liberation Squad managed to gain control of large parts of the Hell Bovinian territory, in what became known as The Bovine Revolution, Hell Bovines' was of independence.
By the time the events of the Starving Revolution occurred in Galdago, forcing the monarchy to withdraw many of the remaining forces, the guerrilla movement was already in control of the most important cities. In the weeks that followed, the battle of Azulada Bay took place, in which the Bovine Liberation Squad finally captured the colonial capital, Santa Trinidad, and all the remaining territory in hands of Ramirez’ forces, effectively turning Hell Bovines into an independent country. The city of Santa Trinidad, once a symbol of foreign oppression to many Hell Bovines, was renamed Blackhooves' Barn to celebrate the nation's independence, and a series of referendums took place, in which the new constitution, proclaiming Hell Bovines as a democratic, socialist and environmentalist Grand Duchy, was accepted. Thus, the people of Hell Bovines showed their acceptance of Mooo Blackhooves and his ideology.
The Independent Period
After the new constitution was approved, Hell Bovinian democratic institutions begun to be shaped: The National Assembly was established as legislative body, and national elections took place. This first national elections were a sweeping victory for the former revolutionary hero, Mooo Blackhooves, who ran for candidate under the platform of the Ecotopian Party of Hell Bovines. He became Hell Bovines’ first democratically-elected Duque, under the title of Mooo I. In addition, Hell Bovinian independence was recognized by the new Galdagan government, in the Galdago-Bovine Peace Treaty.
Under the Blackhooves administration, the capital city was re-established at Moo Moo Farm and thousands of hell bovines returned to live in the once-abandoned city. Also, many controversial decisions were made by referendum, like the collectivization of the economy and the banning of meat-eating throughout the country. A special bill of rights for non-sapient animals was established, what turned Hell Bovines in one of the first countries of the world to support the idea of animal rights. In addition, a land reform took place, and most of the elegant estancias and mansions built by the colonialist elite were expropriated and became state-owned houses for the homeless bovines. National boundaries and a professional military force were also achieved during this period.
The sudden death of Mooo Blackhooves caused by lung cancer, however, was a big shock to the country. It was after his death that it was decided that all future duques would have to carry the honorary title of “Mooo” as a sign of respect to the deceased leader. Later this would became a voluntary decision of each ruler, though.
National elections took place and were won again by the Ecotopian Party. In them, Pedro Santoro was elected duque, thus becoming the duque Mooo II. During his administration, more money was allocated to environmental protection projects and to the developing of basic industry, like agriculture and steel production. In addition, environment-friendly industries like cigar manufacturing and milk production were also developed. After his abdication, he was followed by the duque Mooo III (Baco Rainyhorns), who followed policies similar to his successors. More funds were allocated to welfare and education projects, strengthening the nation’s social security net and education system. In foreign politics, the nation begun developing friendly relations with its neighbors. Hell Bovines joined and tried to expand the First Non-Human Alliance. The project would eventually fail and the alliance would be disbanded, but the ideals of non-human unity would remain a top priority in future Hell Bovinian foreign policy developments.
After many years from the Bovine Revolution had passed, Hell Bovinian standard of living had greatly improved. Social inequality became almost non-existent in the country and illiteracy was eradicated. However, in foreign affairs, the country had became a bit isolated from the international community, thanks to excessive focusing on internal policy and lack of political stability in the nearby regions.
After the death of the duque Mooo III, elections took place and, again, the candidate from the Ecotopian Party was elected. The people of Hell Bovines continued expressing its conformity with said party, as it hadn't lost any election since its foundation by Mooo Blackhooves. Milky Spottedcrown, a long time deputee of the National Assembly, swore in as the Duque Mooo IV, with the promise of continuing with a policy of environment-friendliness, education projects and social equality, while, at the same time, developing a serious foreign policy and liberalizing individual freedoms in the country.
In internal issues, the Spottedcrown administration legalized all forms of marriage, even those with non-sentient animals, extended liberties to traditional bovine sports (such as the controversial Scythe Dueling) and increased the funding to arts, among other things.
Meanwhile, in foreign affairs, Blackhooves’ administration managed to develop Hell Bovinian foreign policy out of the existing isolationism, by taking an active role in the two Third World Solidarity Conferences, at Larkinia and Tanah Burung, and also by participating on the Freedom Five conference, held at Ziobia, and which included long-time allies such as Tanah Burung, Larkinia and Iansisle.
Numerous allies, both in the anti-capitalist and the “fair trade” capitalist world were made, while Hell Bovinian foreign policy also took an active role in the defense of non-human rights. The country became, on the following year, a founding member of the Non-Human Union, along with Red Penguins, Biotopia and Clangerland and later, it assumed the position of Interior Minister of said organization. In that way, Hell Bovines eventually became a fully-integrated member of the international community, strengthening relations throughout the Greenfields region and beyond. In addition, Hell Bovines has been elected as one of the members of the Third World Organization executive board and has became a signatory to the IFTA (International Fair Trade Agreement), thus gaining access to one of the largest trading blocks of the world.
The current duque has recently announced that he's planning to implement what he defined as “an ambitious industrialization plan” as well, but the particulars of this plan are not yet known.