|Official Language In||Jey, Crescent Islet|
|Spoken In||Jey, Crescent Islet, Normeth, Cryz, Fradournia, Croueaux, Kinquay|
|Top Nations Speaking Jevian|| Jey - 4,153,521,962|
Crescent Islet - 1,233,123,624
The Jevian language is a relative of the Latin language, and the native language of the people of the Allied Empire of Jey. Notable for its incorporation of various other parts of speech, its divisions of existing parts of speech, and the addition of numerous new cases, the Jevian language's origins are completely unknown--from the time during which the language developed to the creator(s) of the language. Jevian was used as a regional dialect of the Domz Empire until Jey became independent from the Treaty of Qualo. Immediately afterwards, Jevian became the official language of Jey and today, it remains the official language along with English and Latin. Jevian is the most commonly spoken language of the three.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Alphabet
- 3 Pronunciation
- 4 Major Parts of Speech
- 4.1 Nouns
- 4.2 Verbs
- 4.3 Adjectives
- 4.4 Adverbs
- 5 Minor Parts of Speech
- 6 Usage
Most of the citizens of the Allied Empire of Jey speak Jevian as their primary language--approximately 90% of Jevian citizens. Nearly every Jevian citizen speaks the language in some form or another. As Jevian is a relatively new language in comparison with other languages, there has been little time for both the creation of Jevian dialects and the simplification of the language, most likely resulting in the keeping of the large number of cases and parts of speech and their divisions. With the expansion of information mediums and communication methods inside Jey which standardize the use of Jevian words, cases, etc, the simplification, creation of Jevian dialects, and other regional differences seems unlikely.
With the exception of the southern portions of the regions of Zyzz and the region of Kaivo, Jevian is taught as a mandatory course in Jey primary schools. Depending on the region, all classes may be taught in either Jevian or English, and the great works of literature, poetry, prose, and other written arts are taught throughout Jevian education into the Universitus levels in all three official languages of Jey. Higher Jevian education supports major areas of study in the arts of the Jevian language and the crafting of the written arts, including poetry, journalism, creative writing, among others.
Use Outside of Jey
As a newly major language, few countries have recognized Jevian as an official language of their nation. The only nation to do so is the Jevian Protectorate of Crescent Islet, as the status of Jevian as the official language is protected under the Jevian-Crescent Protectorate Agreement. Approximately 64% of the citizens of the Crescent Islet protectorate speak Jevian as their primary language, and Jevian also is spoken at varying degrees in all of the nations bordering Jey: Normeth, Cryz, Fradournia, Croueaux, and Kinquay.
The Jevian language is composed of 24 letters and 6 symbols:
The letters are listed with their Upper Case (shown first), followed by the Lower Case.
- A,a -- B,b -- C,c -- D,d -- E,e -- F,f -- G,g -- H,h-- I,i -- K,k -- L,l -- M,m -- N,n -- O,o -- P,p -- Q,q -- R,r -- S,s -- T,t -- U,u -- V,v -- W,w -- X,x -- Y,y
- ß -- Ð -- ð -- Þ,þ -- Æ,æ -- Œ,œ
(Note: not all Symbols have a Lower Case)
The consonents of the Jevian alphabet are exactly the same as pronounced in English. The vowels are pronounced as follows:
- A,a - Pronunciation similar to that in English
- E,e - Pronounced like the English long "a"
- I,i - Pronounced like the English short "e"
- O,o - Pronunciation similar to that in English
- U,u - Pronunciation similar to that in English
The pronunciation of the Jevian symbols are as follows:
- ß - long ss
- Ð - short n
- ð - gyr
- þ,Þ - (Not a spoken symbol; only used in written form)
- Æ,æ - aye
- Œ,œ - caye
Major Parts of Speech
The major parts of speech in Jevian are similar to that in English. The major parts of speech are: Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs. Each major part of speech is split into two smaller groups, with the prefix "na-" and "pro-", such as "Nanouns" and "Pronouns", and also possibly another modifying group whose words take the place of the parts of speech discussed, with the prefix "tra-", such as "Tranouns".
Nouns are, as in English, a person, place, thing, quality, or action and can function as the subject or object of a verb.
Declension of Jevian are comprised of a vast amount of nouns who have similar case endings. The case of nouns determines how it is to be used in the sentence. To determine the meaning of a noun, determine its declension number by looking at the appropriate ending, and subsequently discover the case ending. If you know what the stem of the noun means, this information will lead you to the correct translation of every single noun in Jevian and the context of every single sentence. All nouns also have a gender (Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter), which further builds on the information you must know to understand the meaning of a noun.
The meaning of the cases is listed below:
- Nominative: If a noun has a nominative ending, it is automatically the subject of a sentence.
- Nanitive: If a noun has a nanitive ending, it is automatically the subject of a subordinate clause of a sentence.
- Genitive: The genitive ending is reserved for nouns that are direct objects.
- Dative: The dative ending describes the state of posession for the noun.
- Accusative: The accusative ending is reserved for nouns that are indirect objects.
- Iotive: An Iotive ending means that the noun is the receiver of an exclamatory clause.
- Ablative: An ablative ending for a noun designates that the noun is an object of a preposition.
- Vocative: The vocative ending means that the noun is in direct address.
- Locative: The locative ending is reserved for nouns that do not fit any of the descriptions of the other cases.
- Trative: The trative ending is used to show the number of a noun easily.
|Case||1st Declension||2nd Declension||3rd Declension||4th Declension||5th Declension|
|Case||1st Declension||2nd Declension||3rd Declension||4th Declension||5th Declension|
As nouns in Jevian are classified as words which are a person, place, thing, quality, or action, nanouns are simply a subdivision of such words. Nanouns are words that are either qualities or actions, or any such word which takes the place of these nanouns, which are subsequently classified under their own subdivision, Tranouns. Nanouns follow the same declension rules as all nouns follow, and can function in all the same ways as a normal noun.
- Examples of Jevian Nanouns: celertra, cogapilam
- English Translations: quickness, thoughtfulness
All nouns in Jevian that do not fall into the category of nanoun as a quality or action are classified as pronouns, which are much different than the English definition of pronoun. Pronouns are any words that are nouns and are persons, places, or things, or any such word that can be used to replace such pronouns, which are also classified under the subdivision Tranouns. Pronouns function in the same way as all nouns and use the same declension methods.
- Examples of Jevian Pronouns: domam, felinus
- English Translations: home, cat
Tranouns encompass any words which can be used to replace a nanoun or pronoun, very similar to the English definition of pronouns. All words that are considered tranouns are also considered nanouns or pronouns depending on which type of noun they are replacing. Thus the word "he" would be considered both a pronoun as an understood person, and a tranoun as a noun which replaces whomever "he" might be.
- Examples of Jevian Tranouns: eaea, idus
- English Translations: she, it
Verbs in Jevian are words that designate that an action is performed in the context of a certain case.
There are 5 conjugations within the Jevian language, all of which are simply sets of verbs whose basic principle parts are all derived from similar forms. The forms of a verb in Jevian help to form the case usage of the word, and thus to conjugate it. The first conjugation is based around the vowel "a", the second around the vowel "e", the third around "i", the fourth "o", and the fifth "u".
- Regular Verb forms: -o, -are, -avi, -atus
Example: nabulo, nabulare, nabulavi, nabulatus
- Regular Verb forms: -o, -ere, -evi, -etus
Example: angulo, angulere, angulevi, anguletus
- Regular Verb forms: -o, -ire, -ivi, -itus
Example: riseo, risire, risivi, risitus
- Regular Verb forms: -o, -ore, -ovi, -otus
Example: grato, gratore, gratovi, gratotus
- Regular Verb forms: -o, -ure, -uvi, -us
Example: no, nure, nuvi, nus
Verbs in Jevian are ordinated into three main cases -- Present: verbs which are being done at the present time, Perfect: verbs which have been completed, and Future: verbs which will be done. Each case is directed into a system which hosts three tenses of verbs all sharing the same characteristics of the time in which the verb is/was/will be completed.
The present system consists of tenses of verbs that, when spoken about, are being done during such time. For example, the present tense consists of verbs such that "I (verb)", the imperfect tense "I was (verb)-ing, and the future tense "I will (verb)". The following is a list of endings that comprise the present tense. Placing these endings on the stems of the verbs will cause the verb to take upon the tenses' respective meaning.
For tense endings, the first singular person would be translated as "I (verb)", the second singular "you" (singular), the third singular "he/she/it", the first plural "we", the second plural "you" (plural), and the third singular "they/them".
The perfect system consists of tenses of verbs which have been completed as of their time spoken about. The perfect tense consists of verbs such that "I (verb)ed", the pluperfect tense "I had (verb)ed", and the traperfect "I have (verb)ed".
The future system consists of tenses of verbs which, when spoken about, are to be completed in the future of such time. The Future present tense consists of verbs such that "I will have been (verb)ing", the Future Imperfect "I will be (verb)ing", and the Future Perfect "I will have (verb)ed".
Future Present Tense
Future Imperfect Tense
Future Perfect Tense
Unlike the "na-" classified group of nouns, nanouns, which are based on a stricter definition of nouns as only qualities or actions, naverbs consists solely of verbs that either not been done, have not been done or will never be done. Unlike nanouns, naverbs are easily distinguished without having to know their meaning. Verbs that are not to be done or have not been done are given a grammar "flag" by including the symbol Ð prior to the verb. For instance, the verb runero (I have gone) means (I have not gone) with this simple addition: Ðrunero. For verbs which are not done, the present tenses are used, for verbs which have not been done, the perfect tenses, and for naverbs which will never be done, the future tenses are used.
Not metaphorical truths based on common sense, proverbs in Jevian are the types of verbs discussed in detail in these sections. These are verbs that are (being) done, have been done, or will be done. No "flags" are used to distinguish verbs which are to be done, as proverbs are. As mentioned, proverbs which are (being) done are placed in the present tenses, proverbs which have been done are placed in the perfect tenses, and proverbs which will be done are placed in the future tenses.
Traverbs are words which take the place of a naverb or a proverb. Thus, traverbs in Jevian are usually not verbs at all, as usually the only substitute to an action is a noun, usually a tranoun. Most traverbs are used following an interrogative statement, such as: "Who walked?" followed by "Hal did it." In this example it replaces the proverb "walked", thereby making it a traverb, which is not a verb at all, but rather a noun.
Adjectives comprise the part of speech that modifies a noun or other substantive by limiting, qualifying, or specifying them.
Unlike declensions of nouns, which have no apparent organizational structure, declensions of adjectives are split according to the gender of the word. Each female adjective is declined in the first declension; each male adjective in the second; and each neuter adjective in the third. The usage of the specific cases remains the same as with nouns.
|Case||1st Declension (Feminine)||2nd Declension (Masculine)||3rd Declension (Neuter)|
|Case||1st Declension (Feminine)||2nd Declension (Masculine)||3rd Declension (Netuer)|
As in English, Jevian adjectives exist in positive, comparative, and superlative forms. Positive forms are as the word is defined, comparative forms are ""more" (adjective)" or "(adjective)-er" in English, and superlative adjectives are ""most (adjective)" or "(adjective)-est" in English. Unlike other languages, Jevian distinguishes between adjectives that are something and that aren't, thus, Jevian has three other forms along with positive, comparative, and superlative: negative, negative comparative, and negative superlative. The following is the list of endings to develop these various forms.
|Negative||Negative Comparative||Negative Superlative|
Thus, the adjective gigar (tall), would have positive, comparative, and superlative forms of gigar (tall), gigaruler (taller), and gigaruleres (tallest), respectively; and would have the negative, negative comparative, and negative superlative forms of gigarin (not tall), gigarines (less tall), and gigarinesme (least tall), respectively.
Najectives in Jevian are exactly the same as English adjectives. A nadjective modifies a noun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. A nadjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. Included witin the scope of Jevian nadjectives are the English possessive adjectives ("my," "your," "his," "her," "its," "our," and "their"), demonstrative adjectives ("this," "these," "that," "those," and "what"), interrogative adjectives ("which" or "what"), and indefinite adjectives ("many," "any," etc).
- Examples of Jevian Najectives: mam, gres
- English Translations: my, gray
Najectives focus on adjectives pertaining to what is, rather than what was, what will be, or what is not. Thus, projectives in Jevian are any adjective that does not suit the current conditions of the noun it is modifying. If a particular chair is not red, then the words "not red" would constitute as a projective. If a particular man was tired or will be such, then the words was tired or will be tired would thus be a projective. As with naverbs, projectives use grammer "flags" to distinguish their use. The flag "ß" before the adjective shows that the adjective is "not" something; Œ "was" something; and Æ "will be" something.
- Examples of Jevian Projectives: ßfatigem, Œaquem, Ælazorem
- English Translations: not tired, was blue, will be slow
Adverbs in Jevian function similarly to adverbs in English, in that they are classified as the part of speech that modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Adverbs are also very similar to other parts of speech in Jevian, they are declined exactly the same was as Jevian nouns and have the same comparative forms as Jevian adjectives. Adverbs are subsequently classified into two categories: nadverbs and prodverbs, based on whether the adverb is true or untrue.
Jevian nadverbs consist of words which the adverb fits the description of the verb, adjective, or adverb. For instance, if a man ran quickly, "quickly" would be a nadverb, as the adverb properly describes the action the man is performing. Unlike prodverbs, nadverbs are not designated by the "grammar flag," and instead are simply written as defined.
- Examples of Jevian Nadverbs: aes, boneies, celera
- English Translations: very, well, quickly
Jevian prodverbs are different than nadverbs. Prodverbs are adverbs which do not fit the description of the verb, adjective, or adverb being spoken about. If the man did not run quickly, the phrase not quickly would be a prodverb. Prodverbs are designated by the "grammar flag" "ð", which is included prior to the word's written form.
- Examples of Jevian Prodverbs: ðmaer, ðterues, ðswayes
- English Translations: not kindly, not truthfully, not swiftly
Minor Parts of Speech
Minor parts of speech in Jevian are those which have no subsequent degree of classification.
Prepositions consist of words or phrases placed typically before a substantive which display the relation of that substantive to a verb, an adjective, or another substantive. Prepositions are especially important in Jevian due to the large array of prepositions which can be used in the language. Displayed below is a brief list of prepositions preceded by their English definitions.
In English, conjunctions are the small group of words distinguished by their function as connectors between words, phrases, clauses, or sentences (Such as "and", "because", "but", "however", etc.). In Jevian, these words are comprised into one sole character, the Jevian symbol "Þ". "Þ" is the only written conjunction in Jevian, whose meaning can transform based on the context clues of the sentence. In speech, "Þ" is never used, rather Jevian forms of English conjunctions are spoken. The use of Þ is commonly understood to be a gradual change in Jevian written form based on the ease of simply writing a symbol rather than a whole word. In the following example, the context clues reveal that "Þ" must be being used in the place of "and".
- Jevain Example: Eaea bartues dair, cher, Þ yerst.
- English Translation: She bought milk, cheese, and bread.
Jevian iotions are words which are used in an exclamatory state, similar to English interjections. Iotions are primarily used to express emotion from the writer or speaker, and have no grammatical connection to the sentence being written or spoken. Iotions are usually followed by exclamation points, commas, or question marks, depending on their level of emotion and their context.
- Examples of Jevian Iotions: gari!, apol!, awes!
- English Translations: stop!, sorry!, wow!
- See: Numbers
The following are some practical usages of the Jevian language, in common sentences, phrases, and numbers.
Common Sentences & Phrases
- 2,512,401 - duthodecent pentmedecent decent duthocent quatamecent una
|The Allied Empire of Jey|
|Main article: Jey|
|Major cities: Domz City, Universitus|
|Cultural Information: Jevian Culture, Jevian Language, English, Latin, Church of Jey, Jevian Mythology, Jevian National Anthem|
|Governmental Information: Jevian Government, Empirical Democracy, Jey and the United Nations, Drew Domz, Vance Aceon, Philo Caron, Paldric Lyons|
|Administrative Information: Jevian Military, States of Jey, Territories of Jey, The Grenevan Territories, Jevianism, Jevian Justice|
|Historical Information: Domz War, Treaty of Qualo, The Peace of Domz, Treaty of Caxilan|
|Miscellaneous: Jeya (currency), .jey, Jevian Flag, Jevian Red Cross, Jevian Years, UNRFTA, Other articles within Category:Jey|