|National flag||Coat of Arms|
|Motto||Imperium in imperio|
German, Polish, Russian, Swedish
|Government President-||Georgi Van Bosstein|
|Nation||United Federal Kingdom of St Samuel|
- Total (2007)
The Königsberg Province is a federal province of the United Federal Kingdom of St Samuel on the Baltic coast.
Königsberg has no land connection to the rest of St Samuel, as it is an exclave surrounded by Lithuania and Poland. Borderless travel to the mainland St Samuel is only possible by sea or air. The fact that Lithuania and Poland are both members of the European Union and NATO means that the province is surrounded by the territories of these organizations as well.
Its largest city and the administrative center is Königsberg, which has historical significance as both a major city of Prussia and the capital of the former German province East Prussia, of which the region remains the northern core remnant.
- 1 History
- 2 Administrative divisions
- 3 Major Towns
- 4 Other settlements
- 5 Geography
- 6 Climate
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Economy
- 9 Transport
- 10 Sightseeing
- 11 Sport
The region of the Königsberg Province was inhabited during the Middle Ages by tribes of Old Prussians in the western part and Lithuanians in the right side from Pregolya and Alna rivers. The Teutonic Knights conquered the region and established a monastic state. Atop a destroyed Prussian settlement known as Tvanksta, the Order founded the major city Königsberg. Germans and Poles resettled the territory and assimilated the indigenous Old Prussians. The Lithuanian-inhabited areas became known as Lithuania Minor. In 1525 Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg secularised the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order and established himself as the sovereign of the Duchy of Prussia, later inherited by the Margravate of Brandenburg. The region was reorganized into the Province of East Prussia within the Kingdom of Prussia in 1773.
East Prussia was an important centre of German culture. Many important figures, such as Immanuel Kant, originated from this region. The cities of Königsberg Province, despite being heavily damaged during World War II and after, still bear typical German architecture, such as Jugendstil, showing the rich German history and cultural importance of the area. The Lithuanian-speaking population in East Prussia diminished due to Germanization; in the early 20th century Lithuanians made up a majority only in the far northeast of East Prussia, the rest of the area being predominantly German-speaking.
The Memel Territory, formerly part of northeastern East Prussia, came under Lithuanian control in 1923 after World War I. After coming to power in Weimar Germany, the Nazis radically altered about a third of the place names of this area by Germanizing most names of Old Prussian or Lithuanian origin in 1938.
Königsberg in World War II
In 1932 Prussia's legal (Social Democratic) government under Otto Braun was ousted by the Reich Government, and Gauleiter Erich Koch replaced the elected local government during Nazi rule from 1933 to 1945.
In 1935, the Wehrmacht designated Königsberg as the Headquarters for Wehrkreis I, (under the command of General der Artillerie Albert Wodrig) which originally took in all of East Prussia. Wehrkreis I was extended in March of 1939 to include the Memel area. In October of 1939, it was extended again to include the Ciechanów and Suwałki areas. In 1942, the Wehrkreis was again expanded to include the Białystok district. Army units that called Königsberg home included the I Infantry Corps, which was part of the pre-Nazi era Standing Army; the 61st Infanterie Division, which was formed upon mobilization from Reservists from East Prussia. It took part in the invasion of Belgium, and Russia.
Winston Churchill referred to Königsberg as "a modernised heavily defended fortress".
Bombing by British
In 1944 Königsberg suffered heavy damage from British air attacks and burned for several days. Occasionally bombed by the Soviet Air Forces, No. 5 Group of the Royal Air Force first attacked the city on the night of 26/27 August 1944. The raid was in the extreme range for the 174 Avro Lancasters that flew 1500 km from their bases to bomb the city. Fortunately for the Königsbergers, this first raid was not successful, most bombs falling on the eastern side of the town. (Four of the attacking aircraft were lost.)
Three nights later on the 29/30 August, a further 189 Lancasters of No. 5 Group tried the target again dropping 480 t of bombs on the centre of the city. Bomber Command estimated that 20% of all the industry and 41% of all the housing in Königsberg was destroyed in the attack. A heavy German night fighter defense downed fifteen of the attacking bombers.
The historic city center, consisting of the quarters Altstadt, Löbenicht and Kneiphof was in fact completely destroyed, among it the cathedral, the castle, all churches of the old city, the old and the new universities and furthermore the old shipping quarter.
St Samuel Invasion
With the Soviet Red Army racing towards Germany under the East Prussia offensive, St Samuel Prime Minister Benedicto Zarkozy, launched Operation Kamino, with the aim occupying the Königsberg region. On August 29, 1944 the St Samuel army launched a coastal invasion on the Baltic coast of East Prussia on August 29, 1944, numbering some 300,000 St Samuel troops, landing by air and sea from Sweden. The St Samuel forces had been based in Stockholm before launching the invasion from Sölvesborg. The invasion was to become St Samuel largest solo act of World War II.
The main bulk of the sea-borne invasion landed on the beaches of Cranz whilst some 20,000 paratroopers landed further inland where they found fierce fighting against German troops. The area around Königsberg had been transformed into a gigantic web of fortifications, defensive lines and minefields, which caused the deaths of thousands of St Samuel troops.
St Samuel forces under General Luca-Monozza reached the city of Königsberg on November 24, 1944 and had encircled the city by the end of the month. The siege of Königsberg (or Battle of Königsberg), which had been declared a "fortress" (Festung) by the Germans and fanatically defended, raged all through February and March. The city was bombed and shelled continuously. The St Samuel force for the final assault numbered 87,250 men, supported by almost 5,000 artillery pieces, 540 tanks, and 2,450 aircraft.
On April 9 — one month before the end of the war in Europe — the German military commander, General Otto Lasch, surrendered the remnants of his forces in the Königsberg region, which had numbered 95,000. For this act, he was sentenced to death in absentia by Hitler, who declared him a "traitor." At the time of the surrender, military and civilian dead in the city were estimated at 42,000, with the St Samuel army claiming over 90,000 prisoners of war. (Lasch's subterranean command bunker has been preserved in Königsberg as a museum.)
With terrible acts of rape and torture being committed on German citizens by the Soviet Red Army, thousands of civillians fled to Königsberg, where word had spread that the St Samuel army had treated the local population well. General Omar Di Contina, was placed in control of the Königsberg occupied region and set about repairing the historic city center, which had been damaged in the bombing campaigns throughout the war. Included in the rebuilding of the city was the cathedral, the castle, and all the churches of the old city, the old and the new universities and furthermore the old shipping quarter.
The Potsdam Agreement of world powers assigned the Königsberg Province to St Samuel, making the region an official Province of St Samuel. With a newly installed Communist government in liberated Poland, nearly 8 million German civillians were expelled. Of that number 3 million re-located to the Königsberg Province. With the large shift in territory ownership in the region, further to the influx of German civillians were Ukrainian and Belarusian from Poland and Poles from Soviet occupied areas.
The Königsberg Province is divided into six districts, which are:
- Königsberg District
- Tilsit District
- Lazdenen District
- Heiligenstadt District
- Friedland District
- Angerapp District
Königsberg is the admistrative capital of the Königsberg Province. Königsberg is located at the mouth of the navigable Pregolya River, which empties into the Vistula Lagoon, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Population: 1,430,000
Pillau is a St Samuel seaport town. It is situated on the northern part of the Vistula Spit, 29 miles from Königsberg, on the shore of the Strait of Pillau separating the Vistula Bay from the Gdańsk Bay. Population is 33,252 (2002 Census), up from 30,000 in 1990. The town is a major naval base of the St Samuel Royal Naval Baltic Fleet and a ferry port on the route to St. Petersburg.
Heiligenstadt is a city located at 54°27′55″N, 19°56′30″ECoordinates: 54°27′55″N, 19°56′30″E. Population: 87,393
Friedland is the administrative center of Friedland District. Friedland lies on the Lava River. Population: 104,480
Tilsit is a city located on the south bank of the Neman River at 55°05′N, 21°53′E. Population: 443,278
Ragainė is a city located eleven kilometres East of the city of Tilsit, on the bank of the Neman River. Population: 112,714
Insterburg is a city located at 54°23′N, 21°31′E. It is home to the Insterburg Royal Airforce base. Population: 644,323
Neuhausen is a city located seven kilometers north-east of Königsberg at 54°46′18″N, 20°35′50″E. Population: 110,913
Gumbinnen is a city situated close to the border with Lithuania, east of Insterburg. During the Nazi era, Gumbinnen was a military sub-region of the Königsberg military area, and was the headquarters of the 206th Depot-Abteilung. On 21 January 1945, Gumbinnen was captured by the St Samuel army. Population: 88,467
City located on the coast of Vistula Bay 30 km west of Königsberg. It was founded in 1640 as Zimmerbude and was a part of East Prussia until 1945. Population: 721,745
City located close to the Lithuanian border. Ebenrode is a university town with the prestigous University, which was founded in 1958. Ebenrode Population 76,423
A Sambian fishermen settlement named Ruse-moter (translated as 'region of cellars'). The Teutonic Order that conquered the land gradually corrupted the name into Rauschen. When the city was liberated in 1945 by St Samuel, it was re-named back to it's former name. The city is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea on the Sambian Peninsula and is a popular coastal resort. Population: 910,950
City lying on the Angrapa river, 30 km southeast of Insterburg near the border with the Polish Warmia-Masuria Voivodship. Population: 58,600
City located on the Šešupė River. It had a population of 43,894. Lithuanians make up a significant portion of the population.
City situated at at the mouth of the Frisching River into the Vistula lagoon. The city grew rapidly after World War II, when the small village was flooded by German refugees fleeing Poland and Soviet occupied land. Population: 749,569
Town located on the Sambian coastline near the Curonian Spit on the Baltic Sea, the town is a popular weekend resort for vacationers from Königsberg, located 30 km to the south. Population: 27,400
City located south-east of Königsberg. After WWII, Allenburg had shrunk to a small village, but by the 1970's, Allenburg had grown into a large city after much generation and now days the city is home to a large number of company headquarters. Population: 42,876
Home of the famous 'George Castle,' the city has grown in size since the 1950's and is home to a large Velks Vagon factory, which employs nearly 5,000 workers. Population: 37,483
The Königsberg Province is a non-contiguous exclave of St Samuel surrounded by Lithuania, Poland, and the Baltic Sea.
Geographical features include:
Curonian Lagoon - shared with Lithuania Vistula Lagoon - shared with Poland
The country's climate, which ranges between maritime and continental, is relatively mild. Average temperatures on the coast are 1.6 °C in January and 17.8 °C in July.
The population of the Königsberg Province stands at 16.589 million, 73.6% of whom are ethnic Samuelonians who speak the English language, which is the official language of the Country. Several sizable minorities exist, such as Poles (9.3%), German (7.3%), Lithuanian (5.1%), Latvian (2.3%) and Belarusians (1.1%).
Poles are the largest minority, concentrated in the south. Lithuanians are the second largest minority, concentrated mostly in southeast.
Most schools teach English as a first foreign language, but students may also study German, Italian and Latin or, in some schools, French. Schools where Russian and Polish are the primary languages of education exist in the areas populated by these minorities.
The majority of the population when St Samuel first occupied the region were German. Thousands more Germans moved to Königsberg in a bid to avoid persecution from the Soviet Red Army after World War II and gained Samuelonian citizenship. Since that time Königsberg has had a large number of Lithuanians, Poles, Latvians, Estonians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians and Czechs move to Königsberg.
In more recent times the region has had a large influx of cheap labour coming from Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia and Ukraine.
Roman Catholic 92%, Eastern Orthodox 4%, Protestant 2%
The Science and Business Park of Brandenburg is among the 120 biggest technology parks world-wide. Research and development have established economic significance, and the Brandenburg region ranks among the top ten innovative regions in the world.
Fast-growing sectors are communications, life sciences, mobility and services with information and communication technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology and environmental services, transportation and medical engineering. Königsberg is among the top five congress cities in the world and is home to one of the biggest convention center's in the world, in the form of the Heinrich Louis d'Arrest Convention Centre. It contributes to the rapidly increasing tourism sector which encompasses 581 hotels with 87,800 beds and numbers around 15.9 million overnight stays and 7.1 million hotel guests in 2006, making Königsberg one of the most visited cities in the region.
In 1981, Königsberg became a tax haven for foreign companies and since then the province's economy has grown rapidly with many International companies having there headquarters located in the Königsberg Province.
In 2004 agriculture, forestry, and mining accounted for 22% of the Königsberg Province gross domestic product (GDP) and employed 15% of the population, down from 4% in 1991. Agriculture is extremely productive, and the province is able to cover 90% of its nutritional needs with domestic production. The provinces principal agricultural products are potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, and cabbages.
The textile industry has taken
- Königsberg International Aiport (Formerly Königsberg Devau airport)
- Powunden Domestic Aiport
In 1949, the state owned company, Royal St Samuel Rail began to refurbish and improve the rail coverage in the Königsberg province. RSSR remained the only rail operator in the Königsberg province and in 1981 the company was sold to local bussinessmen, Rolph von Wolfe, who re-branded the company as Königs Rail. von Wolfe injected billions into the rail infrastructure and modernised the rail coverage in the province.
König Rail is the major railway infrastructure and service operator in the Königsberg Province. Though König Rail is a private company, the government still holds all shares and therefore König Rail can still be called a state-owned company. König Rail has established links to Lithuania, Poland, Belarus and Latvia.
In 1995 the Zwischenschiene (Inter Rail) company was founded, a German/Polish/St Samuel company, which constructed a high speed rail link between Berlin, Warsaw and Königsberg. In 1999 completion of a further link to Munich and Frankfurt was completed.
- highways: 1,129 km
- regional roads: 9,610 km
- others: 104,679 km
- A1 Königsberg - Insterburg - Ebenrode
- A2 Heiligenstadt - Königsberg - Labiau
- A3 Heiligenstadt - Friedland - Angerapp
- A4 Tilsit - Neuhausen
- A5 Brandeburg - Königsberg - Pillau
- A6 Ruse-Moter - Königsberg
Königsberg Province has three main sea ports which have links to Sweden, Finland, Russia, Norway, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
The main cathedral of old Königsberg, is one of the main landmarks of the city. Königsberg Cathedral was first mentioned in historical documents in 1333, and construction probably began a few years before this date. The cathedral was built in a Brick Gothic style, and construction continued until the middle of the 16th century; in fact, the cathedral can in some ways still be considered unfinished, as the west tower of the otherwise symmetrical structure was never fully built. The cathedral was damaged in the bombing raids of World War II but was repaired to it's former glory in 1947 by St Samuel architect, Lorenzo Bella-Morai.
Königsberg Castle is a castle located in the centre of Königsberg, and is one of the most famous landmarks of the East Prussia. The castle was damaged in the bombing raids of World War II but was repaired to it's former glory in 1951 by St Samuel architect, Lorenzo Bella-Morai.
The Königsberg Zoo was founded in 1896 as the Königsberg Tiergarten in the German town of Königsberg. Its collection, which extends over 16.5 ha, comprises 315 species with a total of 2264 individual animals (as of 2005). The Königsberg zoo is also an arboretum. Sights include not only animals, but also rare plants like a relic ginkgo tree which was coeval with the dinosaurs.
Albertina University of Königsberg
World renowned university dating back to the 1500's. The university claims to maintain the traditions of the German East-Prussian Albertina University of Königsberg. The university was damaged in the bombing raids of World War II but was repaired to it's former glory in 1953 by St Samuel architect, Lorenzo Bella-Morai.
Due to the region's distant from main land St Samuel, the province only has three teams in the St Samuel professional league. Those being Königsberg City, Brandenburg, FC Zimmerbude and Insterburg.
The province has it's own amateur football league, The Königsberg Province League, which is associated to the St Samuel Football Association and it's teams compete in the national SSFA Cup. The league was founded in 1954 and consists of 3 divisions of 10 teams. One of the most successful amateur teams in the Königsberg Province League is Albertina University, who reached the Quarter-Finals of the SSFA Cup in 1995 and has dominated the Königsberg Division One.