- 1 Mangala
- 2 A Brief History of the Democratic Imperium of Mangala
- 3 Notable Corporations
- 4 Notable Personalities
- 5 International Organisations
- 6 External links
|Flag of Mangala|
|Motto: "Die Dulci Fruere"|
|National Anthem: not yet avaliable|
|The Official Map of Mars|
|Region||The Planet Mars|
|Official Language(s)||English, Russian, Arabic, Esperanto, Spanish|
|Leader||The Imperial Council of Mangala|
|Population||Approx. 3 billion (Sept 2004)|
|NS Sunset XML|
Spanning the northern coast of the Hellas Sea, the Democratic Imperium of Mangala is a beautiful nation of over 3 billion sentients, predominantly human, but with a smattering of alien races. It is known for its beautiful terraformed environment, it's extraordinary neutrality in international affairs, and its raucous nightlife. Nightfall in the large tented cities reveals a transformed urban scene, where all generations mingle in the streets and any excuse is good enough for a party.
Mangala was created sometime during the 21st century AD by early colonists of Mars, who banded together in the Hellas Basin region and declared independence from Earth. A short war for independence resulted in the colonists driving Terran security forces off-planet, and an armistice being signed. Since then Mangala has existed in peace, maintaining its neutrality through all conflicts. The The Imperial Council of Mangala seems to prefer a policy of back door negotiating and covert operations to open war. (In many ways Mangala is like Switzerland, though the chocolate is not as nice)
Mangala took their place on the world stage in earnest with the construction of the Grand Canal, linking the newly terraformed Hellas Sea with Oceanus Borealis, and the creation of the Mangalan Accords, which resulted in the creation of the Duma, the Martian global court. Sensing that it is in the nation’s own best interests to keep Mars peaceful, the Council has spent increasingly more time, effort, and money on diplomacy. Mangala leads the way towards a better Mars.
A Brief History of the Democratic Imperium of Mangala
Part I – Emancipation
“The Earth is the cradle of the mind, but one cannot stay in the cradle forever.” -Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the father of rocketry
What would one day become the Democratic Imperium of Mangala was an idea long before it was a reality. In the late 21st century, as the population of Earth expanded exponentially and space technology became increasingly sophisticated, Earth’s grasp on Mars became increasingly tenuous. The majority of the Martian colonies were owned in whole or in part by the metanational corporations that were competing with the G11 for dominance on Earth. The metanationals were tightening their control over the colonies as they sought for every advantage against the national governments and each other in the undeclared economic war. In response to this crackdown, dissent grew among the colonists. In the Hellas Basin this dissent was not expressed as overtly as in other locations, notably the more industrialized southern polar regions. The Hellas Basin colonists were predominantly scientists, engineers, and other highly educated and competent professionals. They had been through an exhaustive selection process, one that was intended to send the best and the brightest to Mars, which had been billed as humanity’s great new frontier. These colonists arrived on Mars to find that the metanationals were less interested in science and ideological exploration than in squeezing every economic advantage they could of the red planet. Disillusioned, and feeling that their skills were not being used to their fullest potential, there were currents of dissent among the colonists for years. The metanational crackdown only encouraged such dissent, and quickly the small underground resistance began to grow. As the century drew to a close, the Hellas Basin grew ever closer to open rebellion. The trigger event of the revolution came in 2087(CE), when the unofficial leader of the underground, John Blake, was assassinated shortly after being appointed as the coordinator of the northern sector of the Hellas Basin colony. The appointment had been made by a transnational executive, who had herself been assassinated shortly after the appointment, probably as part of a corporate power struggle. The glimmer of hope among the population that the metanationals were beginning to listen to their calls for reform was crushed when news raced around the colony that Blake had been found outside the capital dome, his protective suit’s seal open to the harsh Martian atmosphere. If the metanationals had meant to decapitate the resistance, however, they made a grave miscalculation. Though the colonial administrator ruled the death an accident, the population was not convinced, and massive demonstrations were held across the colony. More important than the demonstrations, perhaps, was the effect of Blake’s death on one individual. Maya Katarina Toitovna was a young engineer, who had been placed in charge of the terraformation effort due to her considerable ability as well as an uncanny ability to pull the strings of power. Toitovna had been on of the metanational’s staunchest supporters, both because of her metanational ties and her argument that any violent revolution would destroy the progress the terraformation effort had made, and render Mars uninhabitable. Her significance in this series of events arises from the simple fact that she was one of Blake’s closest friends and, it is generally believed, his lover. Deeply shaken by Blake’s assassination, and frustrated in her attempts to initiate a formal investigation into the “suit malfunction” Toitovna became the underground’s greatest leader. Stepping into Blake’s shoes she quickly consolidated the rag tag alliance of disparate interests into a more or less unified coalition, even setting aside her personal bias and bringing the “red” eco-terrorist groups into the fold. In 2094 the Hellas Basin colony broke from Earth and declared its independence. Mired in their own internecine conflicts, the metanationals offered only token resistance, largely failing to reinforce their security personnel on the surface. When saboteurs from the resistance were able to destroy the metanational space station in orbit over the basin, their independence was assured.
Part II – A New Form of Government
"Earth is a perfectly liberal world. But half of it is starving, and always has been, and always will be. Very liberally.” Stanley Robinson -Arkady Bogdanov, Red Mars
“One could try to regard politics as a science - a long series of experiments in communal living, say, with all the data consistently contaminated. Thus people hypothesized a system of governance, lived under it, examined how they felt about it, then changed the system and tried again... trying successively closer approximations of systems that promoted qualities like physical welfare, individual freedom, equality, stewardship of the land, guided markets, rule of law, compassion to all.” -Sax, BLUE MARS, by Kim Stanley Robinson
Though the Hellas colony was free from Earth, the leadership of the resistance was concerned that the new nation would not be able to survive unless they could find a better kind of government than those which had led to all of Earth’s problems. They were faced with a nation that was fractured ideologically, threats from Earth of a return to Mars, and a planetary surface that was still inhospitable to life. In an effort to balance the need for a strong enough leader to bring the diverse population together and the need to guard against tyranny, while still ensuring a balance of power, a new idea was proposed: why not revive imperial power, but keep democracy? Though initially this idea was laughed off the datanet, it suddenly began to gain support. When revolutionary heroine Maya Toitovna threw her support behind the concept, and brought her considerable influence to bear, it was brought up for consideration at the constitutional convention that had just begun in Mangala, the colony’s largest tent city. After weeks of debate, it was decided that the new nation (which had also gained a name, Mangala, during the convention) would be a “democratic imperium”. A nine person imperial council would be democratically elected, but would wield absolute power of the nation. Each member of the council serves a 20 M-year term and may serve a maximum of two terms. Elections are staggered so that there is never a time when more than five seats are up for a vote at any given time. The council was given absolute power over the nation, with one exception: it may not change the national constitution in any way, under any circumstances. The amendment process is controlled by a national referendum, and the Council may not interfere with it. The rest of the government is divided into a series of ministries, the head of which is elected by popular vote or in some cases appointed by the Council. It is worth noting, however, that the budgets of each ministry are controlled by the Council. One more important office was added to the fledgling government; the Voice of the Council. The Voice represents the Imperial Council to the nation and the World, and is appointed by a 2/3 majority vote of Council members. Traditionally Council members allow the Voice to speak for them, and shun the public spotlight. Maya Toitovna was appointed the first Voice, and her influence on the position is likely to remain forever.
Part III – Taking the Stage
“Once a man has changed the relationship between himself and his environment, he cannot return to the blissful ignorance he left. Motion, of necessity, involves a change in perspective.” -Commissioner Pravin Lal "A Social History of Planet"
“Diplomacy is the art of letting others have your way." -apocryphal
For the next two centuries Mangala prospered in peace. For the most part the government worked well, and the fledgling colony grew by leaps and bounds as the global terraformation effort continued. Mangala fought no wars, and it maintained its neutrality in the several regional conflicts that flared up between different developing Martian states, most notably the series of north-south wars between Vascilian County and various northern powers. Gradually, however, the Imperial Council began to see the need to take a more active role in Martian affairs. The developing planetary economy was an opportunity the nation’s economy could not afford to pass up, and the nations of Mars were beginning to stabilize. Mangala took the world stage in earnest when, in quick succession, it joined the new Martian Free Trade Agreement, and began construction on the Grand Canal, linking the newly formed Hellas Sea with the Oceanus Borealis. Using an orbital mirror array Mangalan engineers were able to burn the canal out of the Martian surface, creating a unique geographical feature that draws millions of tourists to Mangala each year and that allows commercial shipping between the northern ocean and the Hellas Sea. Through it all the Voice of the Council was instrumental in keeping the nation on a smooth course. The story of Maya Toitovna is inextricably bound up in the story of Mangala’s ascent to its present status as a world superpower. The most serious challenge Maya faced in all this time was the effort by a warmongering Council member to gain control of the council and use an international incident with the nation of Pilon as an excuse for starting a war. Though the exact sequence of events remains unclear, what is known is that Toitovna was tricked into leaving Mars just prior to the Council member’s attempt at a bloodless coup. She returned with a ragtag fleet cobbled together with cooperation from MangalaCorp, a corporation she had considerable influence in. (It is worth noting that whether by coincidence or no it was after this incident that MangalaCorp began to emerge as Mangala’s largest and most powerful corporate interest.) Maya also purchased several decommissioned warships from the Republic of Sunset, Mangala’s closest ally, using her own personal fortune as well as money wrung from her contacts in the corporate world. Her masterful reaction to the situation forced the Council member to resign in disgrace and also directly led to Mangala’s greatest foreign policy triumph: the Mangalan Accords. Shocked by how close Mangala had come to global war over a relatively insignificant international incident, Toitovna began a crusade to get the nations of Mars to create a forum for international debate to eliminate the need for armed conflict on Mars. Eventually named the Duma, this global court would serve as a place for nations to have their disagreements heard before the world, and would be given power to rule on international conflicts. Through cajolery, threats, and drawing on every debt owed to her by any official, foreign and domestic, Toitovna was able to get the accords drafted and signed without any violent incidents. Though an imperfect body, the Duma has by and large ended internecine Martian military conflict, and is an invaluable tool for peace.
Part IV – On the Keeping and Maintaining of Peace and Prosperity
“The chief aim of their constitution and government is that, whenever public needs permit, all citizens should be free, so far as possible, to withdraw their time and energy from the service of the body, and devote themselves to the freedom and culture of the mind. For that, they think, is the real happiness of life.” -Sir Thomas More, "Utopia"
Following the Duma’s creation, Toitovna retired from public life, and her deputy Frank Terrel was appointed Voice of the Imperial Council. Mangala continued to prosper in peace, despite occasional minor roles in conflicts between Martian nations and other powers both within the Sol system and beyond. Though it did not join in any formal alliances Mangala’s close relationship with the Republic of Sunset was common knowledge. As the Council continued to invest time, simoleons and effort on international diplomacy Mangala cultivated friendly relations with most of the nations of Mars, as well as the powerful and complex Star Empire of Valinon, which eventually grew to become one of Mangala’s closest allies. Encouraged by Sunset, Mangala also strengthened ties to the Triumvirate of Yut alliance, establishing a diplomatic mission in Port Arthur. MangalaCorp and communications giant MNN joined in a partnership during this period that allowed both corporations to expand exponentially. In a series of business deals with various Martian, Valinor, and Sol system nations MNN was able to become one of the dominant datafeed providers in the Sol system and MangalaCorp also expanded its communications and courier service services by several orders of magnitude. It is widely suspected that a rising star in MangalaCorp, Juliet Rickover, was responsible for much of the success in the corporation’s dealings with Valinor groups. True or not, such rumors are given credit by her extensive dealings with the Star Empire. As Mangalan corporations expanded so too did the government expand Mangalan territory. The Dioscuri system, including two terraformable planets, was colonized and development there continues to this day. The expanding colonial market was a windfall for Mangalan corporations, though the colonies began to export their own products within a few decades of being colonized. The culmination of this period of international involvement was Mangala’s surprising decision to join the powerful Sol alliance, the Triumvirate of Yut. The Republic of Sunset had been quietly encouraging the Council to petition for membership for centuries, and it was finally decided that the Triumvirate shared Mangala’s peaceful goals and would provide improved security for the nation. Today Mangala stands tall as one of the most influential and widely respected nations of Mars. Its government continues to work towards peace and stability on Mars and its corporations strive to provide reliable goods and services to the burgeoning markets of Sol and Dioscuri.
As the Americans learned so painfully in Earth's final century, free flow of information is the only safeguard against tyranny. The once-chained people whose leaders at last lose their grip on information flow will soon burst with freedom and vitality, but the free nation gradually constricting its grip on public discourse has begun its rapid slide into despotism. Beware of he who would deny you access to information, for in his heart he dreams himself your master. Commissioner Pravin Lal "U.N. Declaration of Rights"