List of countries by system of government
This is a list of countries categorized by system of government.
- 1 Presidential / Separated republics
- 2 Parliamentary republics
- 3 Absolute monarchies
- 4 Constitutional monarchies
- 5 Theocracies
- 6 One-party states
- 7 Military Junta states
- 8 Transitional
- 9 Systems of Internal Governance
- 10 Notes
- 11 See also
Presidential / Separated republics
In a Presidential system, a president is the active head of the executive branch of government and is independent from the legislature. The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:
Full presidential systems
In full presidential (also known as congressional) systems, the president is both head of state and head of government but is separated from the legislature, as are the Cabinet. There is no prime minister.
In semi-presidential systems, there is a president and a prime minister. In such systems, the President has genuine executive authority, unlike in a parliamentary republic, but some of the role of a head of government is exercised by the prime minister.
The Prime Minister generally has control of domestic policy, with the President controlling foreign affairs.
In a parliamentary system, a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. However, there is also a president who serves as a symbolic head of state in some figurehead capacity. The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:
An Absolute Monarchy is a monarchy in which the monarch is the active head of the executive branch and exercises all powers.
In a constitutional monarchy, the prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. The head of state is a constitutional monarch who only exercises his or her powers with the consent of the government and is largely a figurehead.
The prime minister (or equivalent) is the nation's active executive, but the monarch still has considerable political powers that can be used at his/her own independent discretion.
Non-democratic states in which political power is concentrated within a single political party whose operations are largely fused with the government hierarchy.
Military Junta states
The nation's armed forces control the organs of government and all high-ranking political executives are also members of the military hierarchy.
States which have a system of government which is in transition or turmoil and cannot be accurately classified.
Systems of Internal Governance
States in which the federal government shares power with semi-independent regional governments. In many cases, the central government is (in theory) a creation of the regional governments; a prime example is the United States.
- Main article(s): Unitary state
A unitary state is governed constitutionally as a single unit, with a central government holding all constitutional power, and no constitutional powers reserved for sub-central units (eg: local governments).
States in which the central government has delegated some of its powers to self-governing subsidiary governments, creating a de facto federation, with the exception that powers of subsidiary governments can be revoked by a simple resolution of the central government.
- Quintessence of Dust
- Wystan (multiple unofficial provinces recognized by central government)
States in which the central government has delegated some of its powers to regional governments.
A federacy is a country in which some substates function like states in a federation and others like states in a unitary state.