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Spoken in: Baranxtu, Cikoutimi, Jonquiere-Tadoussac
Region: International Democratic Union
Speakers: 62,910,000 (est)
Genetic classification: creole
Official status
Official language in: Cikoutimi, provincial recognition in Baranxtu
Regulated by: Cikoutim Language Board

Chicoutim (also Cikutim) is a creole that arose of the contacts between French settlers and the indigenous Alimi and Halani tribes in the area of modern day Cikoutimi and some parts of western Jonquiere-Tadoussac.

Of all descendents of Akes Mersanint, Chicoutim is the most widely distributed and least likely to die out. More than 7 million people currently speak it as their mother language.

Phonology and Orthography

Chicoutim is written in a simplified version of the Latin alphabet; it mostly adheres to the rules of French orthography with only two exceptions:

  • c is realised as [tS] - Cikoutimi [tSI.ku.tI.mI]
  • j is realised as [dZ] - Jontadène [dZo~.ta.dEn]


Of the complex morphology of both French and Akes Mersanint, only few aspects were continued into Chicoutim. Whereas a rather elaborate case system was developed, only three tenses survived, and Chicoutim has dropped all aspects, moods or voices.
Number and gender remains largely unexpressed in Chicoutim, as well.

Number and Gender

There is no grammatical number in Chicoutim; instead, if number should be expressed, some form of semantic number is used.

Something similar can be said of gender. Words such as ape (male) or lou (female) are sometimes used as adjectives to denote gender.


Morphosyntactic Alignment

accusative case direct object -que I see father. Me wouique waraille.
objective case (indirect) indirect object -se I gave it to father. Me wouise dounnaille.


benefactive cause for/intended for sth. -pour I made this for father'. Me cique wouipour fégoure.
possessive case direct possession by sth. -en This is father's car. Ci watoure wouien aille.
sociative case along/together with sth. -awè I visited Jonquière with father. Me Jonquièrese wouiawè wisitégoure.


ablative case away from sth. -dè She goes away from the house. Ile kakoudè alaille.
adessive case near/at/by -prè The tree stands at the house. Pepou kakouprè aille.
elative case out of sth. -parte They go out of the house. Ile kakouparte alaille.
illative case into sth. -a They go into the house. Ile kakoua alaille.
inessive case inside sth. -dan They are inside the house. Ile kakoudan aille.
superessive case on top of sth. -sour The cat's on top of the house. Catte kakousour aille.


Only three tenses are present in Chicoutim: the present, the future and the past. However, depending on their context, they can take additional meanings such as pluperfect or future perfect.
The three tenses are built by adding a suffix to the verb stem.

Tense Suffix to see war
Present -aille I see him. Me ilque waraille.
Preterit -goure I saw him. Me ilque wargoure.
Future -osse I will see him. Me ilque warosse.

These suffixes are derived from three different verbs of Akes Mersanint, but have become the conjugated forms of the Chicoutim copula to be (no infinitive).

aille am/are/is I am happy. Me konten aille.
goure was/were I was happy. Me konten goure.
osse will be I will be happy. Me konten osse.


English Basic Form
I / we me
you tou
he, she / they ile


Word Order

The standard word order of Chicoutim is Subject-Object-Verb. However, whereas moods are not expressed in a morphological way, they can be (and often are) expressed by word order.

  • Indicative mood: Subject-Object-Verb
    • Tou kontent aille. - You are happy.
  • Imperative mood: Verb-Subject-Object
    • Prennaille tou watourque! - Take the car!
  • Interrogative mood: Subject-aille-Object-Verb
    • Tou aille watourque mese pretéosse? - Are you going to lend me your car?
  • Conditional mood: Subject-Verb (past tense)-Object
    • Me lirgoure magazinque sile goure bon. : I would read the magazine if it were good.
  • Optative mood: Subject-Verb (future tense)-Object
    • Tou alosse bon!" - May you be well / You may be well! / Hello!
  • Negative mood: Subject-Object-Verb + pas
    • Ile daupauque awaille pas. - They don't have bread.
    • Pas ile daupauque awaille (mè ileque manjaille). - They don't have bread (but they eat it).
    • Ile pas daupauque awaille (mè outre ileque awaille). - They don't have bread (but the others do).
    • Ile daupauque pas awaille (mè fitanque). - They don't have bread (but apples).



Words for moral concepts, plants and animals are commonly derived from Akes Mersanint, whereas words origining in the sciences or describing modern innovations are derived from French.

English Chicoutim Akes Mersanint French
airport èrpourte tinnameha aéroport
ancestor niné ninna ancêtre
car watoure karu voiture
cheese sètte saita frommage
father woui uya père
fig iwante ipanta figue
mother kèle kaila mère
sea lion tiyé tiye phoque
republic repoulik hutu republique

Useful Words & Phrases

English Chicoutim
hello tou osse bon
goodbye tou alosse bon
please sile touque plaraille
thank you me touque marsaille
sorry me désoul aille
My name is "..." Ile meque "..." aplaille.
Do you speak Chicoutim? Cicoutimque palaille?
French/Qi/Baranxeï/German/Spanish/Alvésin/Dutch/English/Poirih Fransa/Ki/Barankail/Alman/Espanou/Alwésin/Olandai/Anglai/Pwaric
I am from Cheboné, in Chicoutimi. Me Cebonén, Cikoutimidan, reliraille.
yes wi / me konkordan aille
no nou / me dikordan aille
one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten un, deu, twa, katte, sinke, sise, sette, witte, neufe, disse
eleven, twelve, thirteen... disse-un, disse-deu, disse-twa...
twenty, thirty, (...), sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety, one hundred deudisse, twadisse, (...) sisedisse, settedisse, wittedisse, neufediss, sante
I am twenty-one years old. Me deudisse-un anque awaille.
What time is it? Kwa solè aille?
It's five thirty AM/PM. Solè sinke twadisse / disse-sette twadisse aille.
Where's the next public bathroom? Kwa plasse procèn lawabo aille?
police station/fire station/hospital/doctor/super market/church stasso polisen/stasso pombien/opida/doteur/soupre marcé/élise

IDU Country Names

English Chicoutim Counry Name Chicoutim Adjective
Antrium Antrioum antrioumic
Baranxtu Baranktou baranxtouic
Ceorana Séorane séoranic
Cikoutimi Cikoutimi cikoutimic
Domnonia Domnonie domnonic
Fonzoland Fonzolande fonzolandic
Gnejs Gnèsse gnèsic
Groot Gouda Grand Gouda goudaïc
Grosseschnauzer Grand Cnouzère cnouzèric
Jonquiere-Tadoussac Jonkère-Tadoussak jontadic
Keeslandia Kezlandie kezlandic
Malabra Malabre malabric
Mikitivity Mikitiwité mikitiwitic
Otea Otéé otéïc
Sober Thought Sot-Sobr sobric
South Antrium Antrioum de Soude antrioumic soude
Xtraordinary Gentlemen Jentlemen Ekstrordinère ekstrordinèric
International Democratic Union Ounio Demokratike Internassonale odic

Example Sentences

  • Chicoutim: Woui men watoure ilenque mese pretégoure pas.
  • English: My father did not lend me his car.
  • Qi: Fau uyasi karuka sisa likagura.
  • French: Mon père ne me prêta pas sa voiture.

  • Chicoutim: Woukèilen nouwo odinatourque acetégoure.
  • English: Their parents bought a new computer.
  • Qi: Ukaipin ohokamputeuka siminagura.
  • French: Leurs parents achetèrent un nouvel ordinateur.

Languages of Baranxtu
Official Languages:
Asuaneï | Baranxeï | Baranxtuan Sign Language | English | French | Nidajii
Other Languages:
Baranxtuan French | Chicoutim | Masenar | Phipul | Qi

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