Noterelenda

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Noterelenda
Spoken in: Unified Capitalizt States, Spaam (minority)
Total declared fluent or learning speakers: ca. 14,025,000,000 (March, Bedistani year 2090)
Genetic classification: Constructed language
  Noterelenda
Official status
Official language of: Unified Capitalizt States
Regulated by: Asósie Léndire'da Notereléndire
Top 3 nations
Unified Capitalizt States 1,420,000,000
unknown
unknown

Noterelenda is a constructed language developed in Bedistan, and is one of the five official languages of the Unified Capitalizt States, though it is more widely spoken in the former West Bedistan and Pedriana. It draws influences from the other three Bedistani languages (English, Spanish, and a very small amount of classical Greek).

Basic Grammar

Due to Noterelenda's case system, there is no specific required sentence structure, though most sentences use a simple subject-verb-object (SVO) form, like English. Modifiers are usually placed after nouns.

Sample sentence: Ge tal seniel'da. (I went to the store.)

Alphabet and Pronunciation

The Noterelenda alphabet has undergone a few changes in its short history. The present alphabet consists of 22 letters, each of which has a single sound:

  • a = /ɑ/
  • b = /b/
  • d = /d/
  • e = /ɛ/
  • f = /f/
  • g = /ɡ/
  • i = /i/
  • j = /h/
  • k = /k/
  • l = /l/
  • m = /m/
  • n = /n/
  • o = /o/
  • p = /p/
  • q = /tʃ/
  • r = /ɹ/
  • s = /s/
  • t = /t/
  • u = /u/
  • v = /v/
  • y = /j/
  • z = /z/

Archaic letters

The letter q has not always existed in its present form. Originally, the /tʃ/ sound was represented by the letter combination "ch". The extra letter h was later dropped and the /tʃ/ sound was represented by a cedilla added under the c (ç). Rushed writing styles common to Noterelenda speakers eventually resulted in the morphing of this letter into a g-like entity, and eventually the stroke was reversed in direction to help in differentiation, producing today's modern letter q.

In addition, there was originally a letter c. Very recently, this letter has been deprecated in favor of k, as the two have identical sounds. The letter c is no longer recognized as being an official part of the Noterelenda alphabet.

The most recent removal from the alphabet is the letter w, which was made obsolete with the advent of diphthongs. A diphthong beginning with the letter u usually approximates the sound well enough.

Some scholars are also considering doing away with the letter y in favor of diphthongs involving the letter i, but it is not likely that this will happen any time soon.

Pronunciation

Unless otherwise specified, the stress of any polysyllabic word falls on the penultimate syllable (qidade, konsike). A written acute accent mark indicates that the stress instead falls on the syllable over which it is written (jevaré). An apostrophe (') usually indicates a slightly more pronounced break between syllables. It is typically used when there is an awkward transition in sounds (archaic word Arjenibrúk'ta, replaced by Arjenibrukem). It is also used for separating special modifiers from a word (the suffix 'da, for instance, acts as the word "the"). Note that for purposes of stress, any prefixes or suffixes set off by apostrophes are not considered to be part of the word; hence the written accent over the u in Arjenibrúk'ta. A few words, such as numbers, can be composed of multiple parts set off by apostrophes. For purposes of stress, treat each section as a separate word; the stress within each section will fall on the penultimate syllable unless otherwise specified. This is the only way in which multiple accent marks can appear in a word.

Vowels

Normally when two vowels appear side-by-side, they are considered to be part of two separate syllables. Thus, senie (store, nominative) is pronounced "sen-EE-ay", with the i and e forming distinct syllables. For a greater range of vowel sounds, though, a diphthong can be formed. A diphthong is composed of two vowels side-by-side, with the second vowel having a diaeresis (two dots) drawn above it.

Example: The word guane, written as shown, would be pronounced "goo-AH-nay". However, if a diphthong is formed by writing guäne, the two vowels merge, and the pronunciation becomes "GWAH-nay".

In the event that a diphthong requires a written accent mark, that accent mark is placed over the first vowel. Thus, a theoretical word nepáï would be pronounced "nep-AYE".

Pronunciations of common diphthongs:

  • aï = /ɑi/
  • aü = /ɑʊ/
  • eï = /ei/
  • iä = /jɑ/
  • ië = /jɛ/
  • iï = /ji/
  • iö = /jo/
  • iü = /ju/
  • oï = /ɔɪ/
  • uä = /wɑ/
  • uë = /wɛ/
  • uï = /wi/
  • uö = /wo/
  • uü = /wu/

Nouns and adjectives

Gender

Noterelenda nouns are divided into three grammatical genders. The masculine and feminine genders are used only in reference to people or other animals, and their use is based solely on whether the person or animal is male or female. All inanimate objects are considered to be of the neuter gender. The neuter gender is also useful if one is talking about a person or animal but does not know whether it is male or female. The neuter gender can be used to express this uncertainty.

Case

As with other languages such as Classical Greek, Noterelenda nouns and adjectives change based on how they are used in a sentence. There are five cases used:

  • Nominative - The subject of a sentence (The man went to the store).
  • Accusative - A direct object (I took the apple).
  • Genitive - Used to indicate possession (Paul's chair).
  • Dative - An indirect object (She gave him the money).
  • Vocative - Used to address someone or something (Where are you, Sue?).

The forms

As a result, each noun has a total of thirteen forms, one for each of four cases in each gender and a single vocative case common to all three. The endings are as follows:

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative -o -a -e
Accusative -on -an -en
Genitive -om -am -em
Dative -ol -al -el
Vocative -i*

* In the case of nouns that end in the nominative case with the letter i followed by a vowel, such as nepaïe (country or nation), the vocative ending is dropped. Stress should be maintained on the same syllable, so in this case a written accent mark would need to be added to produce nepáï.

Irregular nouns

All nouns native to the language are regular, and will always use the endings described above. There are two main categories of irregular nouns: names of people and names of countries or other geographical locations.

Names of people

If the ending of a person's name does not fit any of the case endings for that person's gender ("Jacob", for instance, does not fit any masculine endings), then the person's name, unaltered in spelling, is used as the nominative case ("Jakob" in this instance since the letter "c" doesn't exist in Noterelenda). The name is then altered accordingly to work with the other cases (Jakon, Jakom, Jakol, Jaki).

If the ending of a person's name does fit a case ending for that person's gender ("Megan", for instance, fits the feminine accusative case), then that name, unaltered in spelling, is used for that case. The name is then altered accordingly to work with the other cases (Mega, Megam, Megal, Megi).

Names of geographical locations

For geographical locations, the same rules apply as with personal names, but all locations are considered to be in the neuter gender. Thus, Australia, for instance, which does not fit any neuter case endings, would be used as the nominative (with any modifications necessary to preserve pronunciation as much as possible, thus it would become "Astraliä"). It would be modified accordingly for the other four cases (Astraliën, Astraliëm, Astraliël, Astrali).

Other irregular nouns

The name of the language itself, Noterelenda, is semi-irregular. The only irregularity is that despite it not being a living creature, it is considered to be feminine instead of neuter.

Pronouns

Subject pronouns are not normally used, since the subject should be clear from the verb conjugation, but they do exist nonetheless. Object pronouns are used the same way as in Spanish, and the usage of possessive pronouns is similar, but not quite the same. With possessive pronouns, pluralization is based on the subject, not the object.

Subject pronouns

Masculine Feminine Neuter
I jo ja
you to ta
he ilo
she ila
it le
we nos nas
you (pl) vos vas
they los las les

Object pronouns

Masculine Feminine Neuter
I jon jan
you ton tan
he ilon
she ilan
it len
we nones nanes
you (pl) vones vanes
they lones lanes lenes

Possessive pronouns

Masculine Feminine Neuter
I jom jam
you tom tam
he ilom
she ilam
it lem
we nomes names
you (pl) vomes vames
they lomes lames lemes

Adjectives

Adjectives usually come immediately after the noun in a sentence, and use the same case endings as the nouns they modify.

Numbers

Unlike other adjectives, numbers appear directly before the noun. Some common numbers are listed below in the neuter form.

# Word # Word # Word
1 one 21 tesenone 400 kuöresine
2 tese 30 tredene 500 fibesine
3 trede 40 kuörene 600 seksine
4 kuöre 50 fibene 700 sedsine
5 fibe 60 sekene 800 erqesine
6 seke 70 sedene 900 nunisine
7 sede 80 erqene 1000 taüile
8 erqe 90 nuniëne 2000 téstaüile
9 nunië 100 sine 3000 trétaüile
10 dene 101 sinone 4000 kúörtaüile
11 denone 102 sintese 5000 fítaüile
12 detese 110 sindene 10,000 déntaüile
13 detrede 111 sindenone 100,000 síntaüile
14 dekuöre 200 tesine 1,000,000 milone
20 tesene 300 tresine 1,000,000,000 bilone
1,846,408,109 bilón'erqesinkuörensekemilón'kuöresinerqetaüíl'sinunië

To create ordinals (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.), add -et-. Thus, "first" would be onete, "second" would be tesete, "third" would be tredete, etc.

Other parts of speech

Transformations

To pluralize a noun, add -s. Exception: When using the 'da suffix, do not modify the base word at all; instead change the 'da to 'das. For instance, senie'da (the store) becomes senie'das (the stores).

To change a noun into an adjective, drop the case/gender ending, add the suffix -ir, and then reattach the case/gender ending of the noun it is modifying. Thus, prente (person, neuter) becomes prentire (unless it is modifying a noun of a different gender, in which case it would become prentiro or prentira).

To change an adjective into an adverb, drop the case/gender ending, add the suffix -ler, and then reattach the relevant case/gender ending (if the adverb is to modify a verb, use neuter nominative). Thus, sosire (social) becomes sosirlere (socially). The -ler suffix is basically equivalent to the English -ly.

By applying these two rules together, you can change a noun into an adverb. Thus, the noun ride (river) becomes the adverb ridirlere (like a river, as applied to a verb).

Given the name of a nation, city, or other place, the genitive case can be used to denote something as being from that place or to make that place an adjective form. Thus, Bédistan (Bedistan) becomes Bédistem (Bedistani).

The rule for forming the diminutive form of a noun is slightly more complicated. Drop the case/gender ending, add -it, and then replace the removed ending. Thus, kaba (cow, feminine, nominative) becomes kabita, and qidadu (city, vocative) becomes qidaditu.

To form the comparative of an adjective, add ta'- to the front, and to from the superlative, add te'-. Thus, konsike (holy, neuter) becomes ta'konsike (holier) and te'konsike (holiest).

Interjections

There are no special spelling or grammatical rules for interjections.

Verbs

All Noterelenda verbs in their infinitive forms end in -ár. Each verb takes a total of 34 forms: six in each of the five simple indicative tenses, a past participle, a present participle, an infinitive, and an imperative form. Verbs are not modified by the gender of the nouns they interact with.

All tables in this section use the following format:

1st person singular 1st person plural
2nd person singular 2nd person plural
3rd person singular 3rd person plural

The verb krozár (to walk) is used as an example.

Type A tenses

To conjugate a verb to the present, preterite, or imperfect tense, the ending -ár is dropped and a suffix is added depending on the person:

Present

krozo = I walk

krozo krozad
krozas krozis
kroza krozan

Preterite

kroze iëre = I walked yesterday

kroze krozago
krozes krozos
krozu krozun

Imperfect

kroziö = I walked, without a specific timeframe

kroz krozigo
kroziäs krozigas
kroz krozian

Type B tenses

To conjugate a verb to the future or conditional tense, no letters are dropped and a suffix is added depending on the person:

Future

krozare = I will walk

krozare krozarad
krozares krozaris
krozara krozaran

Conditional

krozariö = I would walk

krozar krozarigo
krozariäs krozarigas
krozar krozarian

Type C (progressive) tenses

To form the past, present, or future progressive tense of a verb, conjugate the verb benár to the imperfect, present, or future respectively and follow it with the present participle of the action verb.

To form the present participle, remove the -ár ending and add -abo.

beno krozabo = I am walking

Type D (compound) tenses

There are four compound tenses: the present perfect, past perfect, future perfect, and conditional perfect. To form these, conjugate the verb jevár to the present, imperfect, future or conditional tense respectively and follow it with the past participle of the action verb.

To form the past participle, remove the -ár ending and add -ibo.

jeviö krozibo = I had walked

Type E (imperative) tense

There is only one imperative form for each verb. The imperative is formed by removing the -ár ending and adding -ab.

Krozab! = Walk!

Reflexive verbs

If the subject and object of a verb are the same, or if using verbs meaning "to become something", no object is written and the suffix 'de is appended to the end of the verb. For instance, agár'de means "to become angry", and seplo'de means "I talk to myself".

Vocabulary

All verbs listed are in the infinitive form. All nouns are in the neuter nominative. No adjectives or adverbs are listed, because they are all formed from nouns. This is by no means a comprehensive list.

Verbs

  • aplicár - to apply
  • buriár - to bore
  • gár - to go
  • endár - to eat
  • agár'de - to become angry
  • benár - to be
  • oltár - to forget
  • jevár - to have (as in, "I have gone")
  • jotár - to have, to possess
  • mertár - to mark, to tag
  • partezár - to participate
  • tepokár - to think
  • seplár - to speak
  • krozár - to walk
  • kronár - to sing
  • kentár - to want
  • restiár - to write
  • kostár - to cost
  • espegár - to hit, to slap
  • leïudár - to listen
  • underár - to wonder
  • guïrár - to win
  • deferár - to defeat
  • acredár - to agree

Nouns

Nouns marked with an asterisk (*) can also take masculine and feminine forms.

  • adige - age
  • apane - apple
  • asósie - association
  • belare - ball
  • banane - banana
  • bane - bathroom
  • orse* - bear
  • bole - bowl
  • barte* - sibling
  • kamele* - camel
  • ate - car
  • sintre - center
  • seritene - certainty
  • posile - chance
  • qidade - city
  • kenale - claw
  • konabe - cloud
  • klube - club
  • kelene - colony
  • kompetere - competition
  • konsórdie - consortium
  • nepaïe - country, nation
  • kabe* - cow
  • kate - cup
  • de - day
  • domine - dominion
  • duke* - duke (duchess)
  • Adítere - Earth
  • aïste - east
  • impre - empire
  • enkulie - end
  • farge - farm
  • fifage - fire
  • qoqerale - football (known as soccer in some countries)
  • líbrie - freedom
  • afrage* - friend
  • jeme - game
  • grádie - greatness
  • jokame - home
  • konsike - holiness
  • otele - hotel
  • iminte - imminence
  • implosione - implosion
  • aïle - island
  • kree* - monarch (king/queen)
  • laride - land
  • lende - language
  • makre - largeness
  • letere - letter
  • denade - money
  • meseke - month
  • lunare - moon
  • montane - mountain
  • norte - north
  • norole - orange
  • pine - pen
  • pinate - pencil
  • prente* - person
  • repide* - raptor
  • ride - river
  • roze - rose
  • iladimre - seaside
  • salde - side
  • soje* - child
  • pekre - smallness
  • estere - star
  • senie - store
  • sosie - society
  • senore - sorriness
  • sute - south
  • sultane* - sultan
  • sule - sun
  • teride - string, thread
  • egibe - team
  • forpike - thread (on an Internet forum)
  • tese - time, iteration
  • tememe - time (measurement)
  • artole - tree
  • trute - trout
  • unide - unity
  • agadore - waterfall
  • oste - west
  • guäne - win, victory
  • iuïne - winter
  • uäte - wood
  • murle - world
  • etine - yard (measurement)
  • garale - yard, lawn
  • iëne - year

Adjectives

This section contains only those adjectives that are not formed from nouns.

Colors

  • vigre - green
  • anorade - orange

Other words

  • kol - with
  • tal - to

Useful phrases and sentences

Hello. - Sala.

Goodbye. - Godos.

Please (do something). - Pelore, (verb).
Example: Please go to the hotel. - Pelore, gab tal otelel'da. (Note otelel in the dative case, as it is an indirect object.)

Thank you. - Grade.

You're welcome. - Gradele.

I'm sorry. - Beno senorire.

Yes. - Aï.

No. - Ne.

Where is (place)? - Adië bena (place, accusative)?
Example: Where is the bathroom? - Ádië bena banen'da?

What is your name? - Lio bena nome tom/tam? (tom = male, tam = female)

My name is (name). - Nome jom/jam bena (name, accusative). (jom = male, jam = female)
Example: My name is Omario. - Nome jom bena Omarion.

How much does (thing) cost? - Komo kosta (thing, accusative)?
Example: How much does the apple cost? - Komo kosta apanen'da?

How are you [doing]? - Komo benas?
Good. - Gene.
OK. - Médie.
Bad. - Made.

Do you speak (language)? - Seplas (language, accusative)?
Example: Do you speak English? - Seplas inglen?

External links


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For a full list of NationStates languages see Category:Languages.


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